Subiect: The coin hoard of Visuia, 1st – 3rd century A.D.
Contributions to the study of the monetary circulation in Dacia Porolissensis
The paper deals with a hoard of 797 roman imperial coins found in the Visuia village, in the area of a roman rural settlement, and kept in the Museum of Bistriţa. The hoard consists of 641 denarii and 156 antoniniani, issued between A.O. 69-247 in the minds of Rome, Laodicea ad Mare, Emesa and Antiochia. The numeric ratio between the denarii and antontniani of the hoard is 80,42% to 19,17%.
Among the coins of the hoard there are some unpublished (nr. 6, 14, 84, 467, 699, 701, 720, 748) or rare ones (no. 127) and some variants of coins already known, but with unbroken obverse legend (no. 146, 730, 743-744) or unbroken reverse legend (no. 152-154, 273-274, 342, 386, 393). There are also 12 ancient forgeries, hybrid coins, irregular issues (no. 781,
Although the coins were issued during some 179 years (A.D. 69-247) the Visuia hoard doesn't belong to the hoard accumulated by several generations Such hoards are scarce (see f.n. 6). The Visuia hoard is not the only one ending with issues of Philippus Senior and beginning with much earlier coins: the hoard of Jupille (see f.n. 11) begins with a coin of Augustus.
The Visuia hoard represents rather a capital for current use accumulated during the reign of Gordianus III and in the early years of the reign of Philippus Senior. The coins no. 1-11 are isolated coins, which escaped the long series of devaluations from Vespasianus to Septimius Severus. They represent only 1,39°/o from the total amount of the hoard. The bulk of the hoard consists of issues of Septimius Severus, Elagabalus, Severus Alexander and Gordianus III. It ends with issues of Philippus Senior, Otacilia Severa and Philippus Junior.
The paper comprises three tables: I. Issues by the emperors and their relatives within the mints. II. Issues within reigns and mints. III. Percentage of the coins within the reigns and mints within the hoard. The ratio between the issues of the mint of Rome and the issues of the oriental mints within the hoard is 88,80% to 11,19%.
The ratio between the silver issues of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander within the hoard is 36,41% to 63,58%; within the hordes of Ţaga, Geomal, Bîrca and Clavier III (see f.r. 14-18) the ratio is, respectively 47,91% to 52,08%; 61,80% to 38,14%; 37,78% to 62,21% and 47,02% to 52,97%. It accounts for a well-marked preference for the coins of Elagabalus against the devalued coins of Severus Alexander.
The great number of silver issues by Maesa, in comparison with those of
Soaemias, within the hordes of Visuia, Ţaga, Bîrca, Clavier III is a general reality
connected with the leading position of Maesa within the imperial house.
The Visuia hoard ends with issues of the reign of Philippus Senior. The latest ones (no. 691-696) are dated in 247 A.O. (see f.n. 26); accordingly, the hoard was buried in 247/248 A.D. There are some other hoards ending with issues of the reign of Philippus Senior (see f.n. 28-30). Their burying was, wrongly (see f.n. 32-34) put in connection with an invasion by the Carpi. (see f.n. 31). The significance of the burying of these hoards is still to be assessed. The paper ends with some considerations on the importance of the hoards for the study of the political, economic and social history (see f.n. 35).
Abbreviations: D = denarius; A = antoninianus; G = weight in gramms; a = the position of the axis of the reverse on a watch dial;
Key to plates I-VIII: coins from the Visuia hoard. The numbers on the plates correspond to the numbers in the catalogue of the coins.