• Subiect: Wirtschaft, Bevolkerung und Gesellschaft in innenkarpatischen Dacien im ersten Jahrhundert nach der Răumung der Provinz (275-380 u.Z.) Economy, population and society in intracarpathian Dacia during the first century after the withdrawal of the Romans (275-380 A.D.) The paper attempts to provide a picture of the life of the Dacian-Roman population in the intracarpathian territory of the former province of Dacia, between 275 and 380 AD. The choice of these two data is perfectly justified, as they themselves are landmarks indicating events of major importance in the life of the population in the territory being treated: the withdrawal of the Romanians from the province in 275 AD and the military disaster in Adrianopolis. This last event had important consequences on the Roman rule north of the Danube and led to changes in the migratory populations, which changed the political and economic relations in the area and the treated area. Although the above-mentioned territory and period have been dealt with before by the Romanian historiography, the previous works have not taken the economic and social aspects of life of the Daco-Roman population in this part of Dacia; they rather registered facts and archaeological materials. Therefore, the accent laid on the two above mentioned aspects constitutes, in our opinion, the main contribution of this paper. The study of the problem itself and its treating start from some prerequisites which must be briefly presented, as they define the historical background of the life after 275 in Dacia Intracarpathica. The Roman rule in Dacia that lasted for 165 years caused the demographic economic and spiritual changes (linguistic changes included) that constituted a quick and thorough process of Romanization. Without a previous acceptance of this fact there would be no point in discussing the phenomena of the century, we deal with, because the main elements of Romanization (army administration, religious organization) ceased their local influence after the withdrawal of the Romans from the province. Dacia was not abandoned as a consequence of any external pressure, of any conquest made by migratory peoples and it was not officially given up to any people. The abandoning of the province was not an isolated phenomenon at the time, it was part of a series of strategical withdrawals determined by the military situation of the Empire (Agri Decumates, the mouths of the Rhine, Upper Egypt, etc.). In the case of Dacia the withdrawal was caused both by the situation in Illyricum and Moesia Inferior and by the fact that the limes on the Olt river was abandoned and Dacian's defense was shifted in the South on the Carpathians, so that the province could not fulfil anymore its task of defender of the other provinces on the Lower Danube. The archaeological research carried out at low Roman camps of Dacia Intracarpathica does not show any violent destruction of these. The details of the withdrawal from Dacia remain an unsolved historical problem, for the time being. But it seems that there was an organized withdrawal of the army and administration. The Roman life continued in the settlements of the former province shows that the bulk of the population remained on the spot and it represented the basic demographic clement in the 4th century AD. After the economic crisis and the military anarchy at the middle of the 3rd century the Roman Empire gradually recovered. As soon as its economy, military force and offensive system -covered the Roman Empire passed on to an offensive policy in the area of the Lower Danube. There, a large strip of land, north of the river, including the Banat and parts of Oltenia and Muntenia was reconquered and re-annexed to the Empire. During the 3rd and the 4th century the Empire did not give up the reconquers of the abandoned territories north of the Danube, Dacia included. Constantine’s and his sons' policy was an active one in this sense. After the adoption of Christianity as an official religion, this was turned into a political instrument both for the inner and external policy, and its spread north of the Danube was officially supported by the Empire. The economic and military recovery of the Empire, the reconquers of territories north of the Danube, and the spread of Christianity played an important part in the maintaining of the economic, spiritual and linguistic relations between the Empire and the Daco-Roman population in Intracarpathian Dacia, relations that deeply influenced the development of Roman life here. Both the archaeologic search and the literary texts show that this territory was not affected by the movements of migratory barbarians. Later on, only at the end of the 4th century, the Goths (or Visigoths) the bearers of the Sântana de Mureş culture, are archaeologically attested here, but in close relationship with the autochthonous population. The archaeological research and the finds on the territory of Dacia Intracarpathica support and complete the above mentioned facts. In the settlements both urban and rural ones, the forms of production existing in the former province, went on. At Moigrad and Cristeşti there was an intensive pottery production. At Mănăştur-Napoca Roman type tiles were manufactured. The salt mines were intensely worked both for internal use and for export. But a decline, if not a total creasing, of mining and of metal working is ascertains by the scarce ty of metal items. But gold washing seems to have lower still practiced. A feature that differentiated the Daco-Roman population from the barbarians was the existence of a monetary economy. Coin finds show that monetary circulation recovered at the beginning of the 4th century, it fully flourished by the middle of this century and began to fall after 370-380, owing perhaps to the effects of the defeat at Adrianopolis. The curve of the monetary circulation was in close connection with the imperial policy of reconquers north of the Lower Danube. Both the large number of stray coins and the small size of the coin hoards are symptoms of a transition to a closed economy, in which agriculture and cattle breeding seem to be the main elements of the economic life. The other activities, including trade, will survive and develop only to the extent they supplemented agriculture. The money seems to have been used rather for the acquisition of products which could not be obtained in this system of closed economy: pottery, salt and perhaps metal products too. The economic relations with the Empire are still comparatively intensive, as shown both by the coin afflux and by that of items coming in from the Empire. Such items are: fibulae, applicae, belt-buckles, Christian objects (lamps, gems, a denarius, etc.), all from the Western part of the Empire. The numerous coins from the Balkan mints entering Dacia towards the middle of the 41h century seem to be in connection rather with the restrictions in coin circulation imposed by Constantius II, than with a break of spiritual and cultural relations with the Western part of the Empire. In exchange for the coins and products from the Empire, Dacia, exported salt, which was entirely lacking in the neighboring parts of the Empire, cattle and, perhaps, gold. The bulk of the population of the territory were the Daco-Romans, who lived both in the old settlements and in the new ones, the latter being situated not far from the old sites. Up to now we know 24 such settlements, 2 of them on the territory of former towns, 6 of them on the territory of former rural settlements. Out of the total number of 16 cemeteries, 5 are situated in towns, 6 of them are mixed, combining the rites of the two populations, Romans and Dacians, and 4 are typically Dacian. The relatively small number of identified settlements and cemeteries represents rather a stage of research than a demographic reality (we do not consider as settlements the spots where coin hoards, stray coins and stray archaeological materials only were discovered). The whole archaeological material, especially pottery, preserves the look of the material culture of the former province. The pottery shows a revival of aspects typical for the Dacian population. The stray coin finds, especially in the spots where they appear in great number are more frequent on the territory of the settlements of the former province. And in the same spots items of Christian character and goods imported from the Empire are found. It is obvious that this is a proof for the continuation of life and population in the settlements of the former province. Of course, there are some changes in comparison with the previous period of the Roman rule. The towns are no longer economic and administrative centers. Although some of the monumental stone buildings are still inhabited, a shifting of the population towards the outskirts of the towns has been ascertained, in connection with a new way of life based on agriculture and cattle breeding. Further, a shifting of population to the rural settlements is ascertained as well. The use of coins shows that both the urban and rural population still practiced a monetary economy as inherited from the former province. In the towns burials were made in the traditional way, both in graves built from reused architectural materials and in graves built for this purpose. In the rural settlements both inhumation and incineration were practiced, the latter being characteristic for the Dacian population. The summing up of archaeological and numismatic evidence shows that population in this ·area was denser than it was believed some 30-40 years ago. Certainly future research and finds, by adding new data, will support to an even larger extent this fact. The conclusions concerning the social structure of the Daco-Roman population are based - for the time being - exclusively on the archaeological evidence, which must be completed. But there are some data which allow conclusion about the social structure. The way old buildings in towns are inhabited, the position of homes and of their premises suggest that the small family constitutes the main social nucleus. The abandonment of the large buildings in the towns, the shifting of the population towards the outskirts suggest that the well-off stratum of society left the town - if not the province - and retired into the countryside. This phenomenon appears in the other parts of the Empire as well. A certain degree of pauperism in the way of life is ascertained, visible in the poorer quality of the pottery, in the scarcity of bronze and iron objects, in the absence of ornaments and glass products. Pauperism is evident in funerary inventory too. On the other hand the intense activity of some pottery workshops (Moigrad, Mănăştur, and Cristeşti) is a proof for the existence of private property, which automatically implies differences in wealth ·and social status. The same is suggested by the accumulation of coin hoards. The penetration and development of Christianity, of a certain local style, but in close relationship with the Empire, were possible here (as in the Empire as well) on account of a social stratification which facilitated the orientation towards Christianity and its acceptance. The vessel with Christian inscription found at Porolissum is a conclusive piece of evidence in this respect and it shows that during the first century after the withdrawal of the Romans, Dacia Intracarpathica still preserved some of the social structures inherited from the former Roman province. Of course, these social structures as well as the strong class: differentiations could have been attenuated by the separation of this territory from the Empire. One can notice that during the first century after the province was abandoned, the economic and political situation of the autochthonous Daco-Roman population in Dacia Intracarpathica was influenced by the political, economic and social situation of the Empire. And in this way the one hundred years of Roman life in the period dealt with, added to the 165 years during which Dacia belonged to the Empire, makes the interval between 275-380 AD a period of utmost importance for the evolution and development of the Romanity North of the Danube, ensuring its existence and development for the following centuries. It is also possible that just during this period began the spread of the autochthonous Daco-Roman element outside of the former province, including thus in the area of Daco-Romanity the Dacian population from the territories which belonged to Pre-Roman Dacia and represent the territory inhabited by the Romanians today. The paper is accompanied by six lists of finds and seven maps with these finds: I. Settlements of the period 275-380 A.D. II. Necropolis between 275 and 80 A.D. III. Coin (stray finds) between 275 and 380 AD IV. Coin hoards between 275 and 380 A.D. V. Late Roman imported items between 275 and 380 A.D. VI. Finds of Christian items. VII. General map of the above mentioned finds.
  • Limba de redactare: română
  • Secţiunea: Istorie veche şi arheologie
  • Vezi publicația: Acta Musei Porolissensis
  • Editura: Publicat de: Muzeul de Istorie şi Artă din Zalău
  • Loc publicare: Zalău
  • Anul publicaţiei: 1982
  • Referinţă bibliografică pentru nr. revistă: VI; anul 1982; subtitlu: Anuarul Muzeului de Istorie şi Artă din Zalău
  • Paginaţia: 123-
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