Repere arheologice medieval-timpurii în zona Adamclisi (jud. Constanţa)

  • Subiect: In this study the authors presents all early medieval discoveries that are known until now at Adamclisi and the surrounding villages of published materials, to which are added new information’s from the archaeological research made in this area in the last years. Over time, in the Roman-Byzantine fortress, the archaeological research revealed proves of early medieval inhabitation in most of the sectors. The most significant is a cottage found in the south-west sector, in the extramuros area, at 16 m of the precinct wall, with numerous ceramic materials, but unfortunately unpublished. Other proves are ceramic fragments discovered especially in the dismantling level, small buckles (clasps for books or shoes), spearhead and two iron arrows. Early medieval materials from the area of the Roman-Byzantine fortress, belongs, under the reserve of future researches, to the 10th century and first decades of 11th century A.D. In the point called “Fortified annex” was identified the existence of level specific to this period, dated in 10th-11th century A.D. One of the points with early medieval findings near the Roman-Byzantine fortress is at approximately 100-150 m south-east from the fortified annex (10th-11th centuries). From here, in the last year, during a surface research, on a radius of approximately 50 m, were gathered 39 pottery fragments, a sandstone, a brick with two grooves from sharpening bone objects, another with a form of a weight, but non-perforated, and a strong blunt stone in the middle, probably used as a basis for a rub. A possible necropolis close to the city and the area presented above is suggested by a fortuitous discovery, made three decades ago, of an inhumation grave, on a private propriety from the urban area of Adamclisi, dated in the first half of the 9th century A.D. Another (?) possible necropolis, but an incineration one, dated in the 10th century A.D., is mentioned at approximately 5 km east-south-east of Adamclisi. From fortuitous findings come also four monetary pieces. Early medieval specific materials appear also in Zorile and Şipotele, villages which administratively belongs to Adamclisi. At these information, a series or fortuitous findings occasioned us to analyse the early medieval problem at Adamclisi from a much richer perspective of archaeological artefacts specific to this period. Thus, during 2007 and in the next two years, in the entire area, in the entire area between Adamclisi, Abrud and Haţeg (which administratively belong to Adamclisi), part of the terrains designated for agricultural work suffered a series of anthropic interventions preparing the land for crops such as fruit growing and wine growing. In the fall of 2008, with the occasion of the presence for systematic research from Adamclisi, we received in two batches, several artefacts specific to Roman-Byzantine and early medieval period gathered by one of the seasonal workers, from the respective area. With this occasion we found out about the fortuitous discovery of ceramic material, various metal and bone objects (civil and military), osteological remains etc. After a preliminary analysis of the respective batch we found that the overwhelming majority of them belong to the early medieval period. From those materials we mention 103 pottery fragments (oxidant and reductively burned), six spindle whorls, a bone pusher, a fragmentary sandstone, a silex core and 67 metal pieces (representing 56 appliques, 4 belt tongs, a small cross, an earring, a buckle, three rings and a piece of the weaving loom, all detailed in the catalogue). More than half of the pieces discovered near Adamclisi have analogies in the centres of production from Novosel (appliques, belt thongs, buckles, small cross) and Zlatar (appliques), respective in the batch of lead moulds from north-east of Bulgaria which are in the collection of Varna museum (appliques), as evident from the presentations made in the catalogue. These are made by Bulgarians craftsman’s, in the known or other centres. There are also some pieces to which we didn’t found any exact analogies, but which have some similarities regarding the form, technique and decoration. It’s possible that part of these “transition variant” between models or products of more distant workshops. The piece no. 56 we are not sure if it belongs to early medieval period. Widely, the metal pieces, corroborated with ceramics, belong to the second half of 9th century-first part of 11th century A.D. For some of them this chronology may be restricted, as evidenced by the data provided in the catalogue or the presentation of ceramic material. The new findings from Adamclisi complete the existent know data for the Dobroudjan territory in early medieval period, and through this representative batch of decoration objects, probably the biggest discovered until now in the south-east of the country, diversify known types and variants, while providing valuable information with important contribution in shaping the image of the area at this time.
  • Limba de redactare: română, engleză
  • Vezi publicația: Revista Bistriţei: RB
  • Editura: Accent
  • Loc publicare: Cluj-Napoca
  • Anul publicaţiei: 2014
  • Referinţă bibliografică pentru nr. revistă: XXVIII; anul 2014
  • Paginaţia: 164-196
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