• Subiect: The new researches in south-eastern Transylvania confirmed the fact that in the transition period from Chalcolithic to the Bronze Age this area was occupied by the first stage of the Coţofeni culture. Recently a tomb belonging to the globular amphorae culture was discovered in Sânmartin-Ciuc. It represents the first and for now the only discovery of this culture in Transylvania. The penetration of the globular amphorae culture in the Ciuc Valley occurred probably immediately after the first stage of the Coţofeni culture. It is probably contemporary to the moment of apparition of the Zimnicea-Mlăjet-Sânzieni-Turia group attested on the territory of Covasna County. It is not excluded for the globular amphorae culture to have contributed to the formation of the Schneckenberg culture. If so, this would plausibly explain the wide use of the cysts in the funeral rite of this group. The next stage of the Early Bronze Age in south-eastern Transylvania is related to the ''Zăbala culture"' attested only in its eponymous site and long-time seen as being an isolated manifestation in Transylvania. Taking into account the close similarities between the pottery from Zăbala, the Livezile aspect in western Transylvania, and the Aldeşti aspect in south-western Moldavia, some people admitted the existence of an entity that included western Moldavia and probably the entire southern Transylvania. As to its chronological frame, taking into account the stratigraphic observations at Livezile-Baia (H. Ciugudean), it is probably contemporary to the 3rd stage of the Coţofeni culture. There are not excluded chronological differences within this entity. They could be due to its widening from east to west. The situation at Livezile probably reflects the latest aspect of that entity. The synchronisation of the Zăbala aspect with the 2nd stage of the Coţofeni culture (P. Roman) could remain valid. Anyway, the existent material is not yet enough for conclusions in this respect. The Schneckenberg culture was distributed not only in Transylvania, but also in Moldavia and north-eastern Wallachia. The Jigodin group considered as being the local aspect of the Schneckenberg-Năieni-Jigodin phenomenon covers also not only the Ciuc Valley, but also the western Moldavia. The recent research of the tumuli group at Biborţeni showed a large concentration of the Schneckenberg culture tumuli in the north-western part of the Covasna county and south-western part of the Harghita County. It is a unique tumuli concentration within the entire area of the Schneckenberg culture. It is interesting that these tumuli concentration covers an area situated at the south-eastern boundary of a saliferous zone from the Homoroade and Vârghiş valleys. Therefore, it is possible for this tumuli concentration to be related to certain proceedings connected to the salt exploitation. The end of the Early Bronze Age in south-eastern Transylvania was marked by the penetration in the area of the cultural group characterised by the pottery with the surface with the textile imprints and striations. This aspect was attested in the Zoltan. Probably, in the same period the Ciomortan-Costişa group appeared in the Ciuc Valley. The available stratigraphic and typological data place this moment before the Br. A l Reinecke period. In this respect the discovery of a bronze heart-shaped pendant in the Wietenberg culture house is relevant. It has good analogies in Central Europe, in the Br. A l context. The Wietenberg layer from Păuleni / Ciomortan settlement overlaps the Ciomortan one. On the other hand, in the Siliştea settlement within the Costişa aspect context the bronze bracelets with good analogies within Br. Al context were found. More than that, sometimes in Central Europe (for example the Barca hoard) this type of bracelets is associated with the heart-shaped pendants. These strongly suggest the conclusion of the priority of the Ciomortan aspect to the Costişa one. It means that it is contemporaneous to the Monteoru Ic4-Ic3 and very close to the Jigodin group. All these suggest that the Costişa culture - through its earliest aspect, Ciomortan - descended from south-eastern Transylvania.
  • Limba de redactare: română, engleză
  • Secţiunea: Materiale şi cercetări arheologice
  • Vezi publicația: Memoria Antiquitatis
  • Editura: „Constantin Matasă”
  • Loc publicare: Piatra Neamţ
  • Anul publicaţiei: 2004
  • Referinţă bibliografică pentru nr. revistă: XXIII; anul 2004; subtitlu: Acta Musei Petrodavensis
  • Paginaţia: 265-275
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